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        Detailed Explanation of BitCherry Project Of Distributed Commercial Public Chain (3): Characteristics and Implementation Principles of Hash Body (Side Chain) And Hash Ring (Sharding) Technology

        11-16 https://medium.com/bitcherryglobal/detailed-explanation-of-bitcherry-project-of-distributed-commercial-public-chain-3-d3

        Blockchain has become an important technology to promote commercial development. Whoever can master the core technologies in this field may become the “leader” in this field. However, while using blockchain technology to enable commerce in various fields, we also find some shortcomings of current commercial level blockchain projects and blockchain technologies. For example, most blockchain systems adopt single chain table structure, and the privacy and security of commercial applications on the chain are limited by the performance of single chain. Nevertheless, some public chain projects with multi chain system structure are proposed. Due to the low interoperability between the simple multi chain structures, the application on the chain cannot meet the commercial needs of small amount and multi frequency, which indirectly leads to the failure of effective connection between traditional user groups and commercial institutions, resulting in weak liquidity. As well as the existing blockchain lack of effective regulatory means, resulting in low user trust. These problems have deeply restricted the desire of enterprises in various fields to use blockchain technology to enable their own development.

        As the world’s first scalable blockchain infrastructure based on IPv8 technology to serve distributed commerce, BitCherry builds P2P plus peer-to-peer encryption network protocol with a new thinking of innovating the physical layer. It realizes highly scalable data architecture through Hashgraph improved by Relationgraph, and provides operation mechanisms such as smart contract and cross chain consensus, so as to provide high performance and high security for global commerce High availability of low-level technical support, services related to supply chain finance, product traceability, asset digitization, commercial consumption, e-commerce, distributed cloud computing and many other fields.

        This article included three part of the BitCherry project of distributed commercial public chain — Characteristics and Implementation Principles of Hash Body (Side Chain) And Hash Ring (Sharding) Technology. The following is the main content.

        1、 Hash body (side chain) technology

        Multi Chain Architecture

        BitCherry’s Hashbody (side chain) technology can segment the data according to the requirements of different actual application scenarios, to improve the throughput of the blockchain horizontally. Hashbody technology is a side chain technology divided by DAPP type. In BitCherry, the basic data is a graph structure based on transaction hash and related with adjacent nodes. In short, the traditional side chain technology that multiple side chains anchor the main chain is actually a multi one-way list structure with intersection points in the unit of blocks, while the hash body is a three-dimensional structure that slices according to DAPP type and the interface is Hashgraph.

        The side chain of traditional blockchain structure actually improves TPS by expanding one line to N lines; while BitCherry essentially upgrades the 2D plane Hashgraph structure to 3D three-dimensional Hashbody structure, and in the process of expanding from 2D to 3D, the added dimension is actually the adjacent node relationship. For example, in the field of transportation, if we want to improve the traffic efficiency, we need to expand lanes and separate people and vehicles. The side chain technology is equivalent to expanding lanes. However, the side chain of traditional blockchain only divides the lanes, and does not classify the node relationship and use purpose, because there are only two types of transaction and contract, and there is no difference between them, so the road cannot be differentiated. To put it simply: there is no difference between roadway and sidewalks. If both lanes are designed according to roadway, sidewalk will be too wide and the resources will be wasted; if both lanes are designed according to sidewalks, the roadway will be too narrow. Therefore, BitCherry can further improve the performance of DAPP and optimize the token economic network by designing side chains for different purposes. Therefore, it is more efficient to divide the DAPP into different application types.

        Parallel Multiple Side Chains

        BitCherry’s main side chain technology provides different types of side chains according to the circulation content. The main chain is only responsible for the consensus and transaction of the main token, while the number of side chains can increase with the increase of business volume and data. The nodes of different sub chains handle their own business. Side chain is based on general token, transaction (e-commerce / payment), information flow (Social Media / social network), IPFs storage (cloud disk / big data / video / Library), CPU / GPU Computing (AI / Ar / VR / 3D) Rendering / cloud Games / distributed supercomputing) are divided into different types, which greatly increases the application commonness in the side chain. At the same time, BitCherry also designs a multi-layer systematic security guarantee mechanism to effectively resist bribery attacks, malicious submission and other attacks.

        2、 Hash Ring (Fragmentation) Technology

        Six-Degree Segmentation Theory

        If the side chain is the external horizontal extension of the blockchain, then fragmentation is the internal vertical slice of the blockchain. People, society, and business have countless ways of arrangement and combination. If there is no information means to aggregate together, it is easy to lose. Instant messaging on the Internet brings people together, but this is virtual. Business society needs real names, otherwise credit will be across a gap. However, through the “six-degree division” between acquaintances, a trusted network can be created.

        Hash Ring is the image of the hash relationship graph, which is very similar to the concept of the circle of friends. In the Hashgraph, there will be more than 100000 or even millions of consensus nodes in the whole network. So we can find hundreds of nodes with the highest degree of correlation to endorse their own transaction consensus by longitudinal slicing among many nodes, which is just like looking for their own relationship in social network The process of the closest friend is the same. BitCherry is a hash graph partition based on relation graph. According to the theory of six-degree partition, the same type of relationship is usually concentrated in the surrounding small circle, and it will form a hash circle from large to small. Therefore, more than 96% of the transactions are carried out in the same partition. Cross slice transactions will greatly reduce and reduce many unnecessary losses.

        Implementation of Hash Ring

        In terms of technical implementation, Hash Ring uses social network analysis algorithm (SNA). The difference is that the calculation dimension is no longer just social relations, but includes the P2P plus network connectivity dimension and relationship graph dimension (for the main chain, it refers to the transaction relationship); for the side chain, according to the type, it is divided into e-commerce relationship, social relationship, file sharing relationship, game relationship, etc., program algorithm. Generally, graph calculation and cluster analysis are used, including analysis index algorithm and community discovery algorithm.

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        In BitCherry, the degree based shortest path algorithm and compact centrality algorithm are used in the underlying P2P network topology. The hash graph consensus algorithm uses the betweenness centrality and community discovery algorithm. For the ranking of gateway nodes and V nodes, the shortest path, compactness centrality and betweenness centrality are integrated, and then the endorsement nodes are randomly selected.

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